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Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System

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Course Information
By the end of this module; you will be able to: - Explain the two types of action potential seen in the heart. - Explain the parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation on pacemaker potential. - Explain the transmission of cardiac impulse through the different parts of the heart. - Explain the ventricular depolarization and repolarization. - Explain the different phases of the cardiac cycle. - Explain how ECG changes with the cardiac cycle. - Explain the ventricular systole and ventricular diastole. - Explain how the aortic pressure and atrial pressure change with the Cardiac Cycle; QS2; LVET; PEP with the Cardiac Cycle and pressure-volume Loops. - Define Ohm’s law; Poisueille’s law and law of La Place. - Explain the relationship between velocity; flow and total cross sectional area. - Explain the difference between laminar flow and turbulent flow. - Explain the vascular resistances in series and parallel. - Explain the variation of cardiac index with age. - Explain the methods for measuring cardiac output. - Explain the cardiac output regulation. - Explain the Frank- Starling’s Law and factors affecting the affecting end diastolic volume or preload. - Explain the vascular function curve and cardiac output curve. - Explain the pulse pressure; mean arterial pressure. - Explain how the blood pressure is measured. - Explain the regulation of blood pressure. - Explain the Renin-Angiotensin – Aldosterone mechanism.

Additional Information

Author Dr. Anupama Chowdhry; M.D; D.N.B.(Physiology); Associate Professor Department of Physiology; Army College of Medical Sciences; New Delhi; India.
Review Editor No
Associate Editor Dr. Varun Gupta; MBBS; MD Clinical Education & Reference Division; Elsevier.
TOC
Cardiovascular System
  • Structure of Cardiac Muscle
  • Gap Junctions
  • Cardiac Action Potentials
  • Spread of Cardiac Impulse
  • Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
  • ECG Changes with the Cardiac Cycle
  • Ventricular Systole
  • Ventricular Diastole
  • Aortic Pressure Change with the Cardiac Cycle
  • Atrial Pressure Change with the Cardiac Cycle
  • Heart Sounds During the Cardiac Cycle
  • Pressure-volume Loops
  • Test Yourself

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